12 Science Fiction Tropes for Sci-Fi Authors

Posted on Jun 20, 2023

Avatar Of Christopher Ortiz
Home > Blog > Fiction, Writing > 12 Science Fiction Tropes for Sci-Fi Authors

Science fiction, with its endless capacity for imagination and futuristic landscapes, has captivated readers for almost as long as books have been written. 

Tales of the future that inspire the reader to imagine what life might be like long after they are gone, will tap into something deep within the human psyche. Within this expansive genre, one encounters every possible aspect of storytelling, including what is known as ‘tropes’. 

These recurring themes, motifs, and narrative devices add depth and familiarity to science fiction literature, providing readers with a sense of wonder and the opportunity to explore speculative realms. 

In this article, we will explore and discuss these tropes in order to provide you the reader with a comprehensive understanding of what these tropes are, ultimately enhancing your journey as a reader the next time you pick up one of these books.

Read on to discover some of the most prominent sci-fi tropes, along with advice on bow to use them in your own writing:

Alien Encounters

Alien encounters stand as a cornerstone of science fiction, inviting readers to ponder the mysteries of extraterrestrial life and its implications for humanity. One famous example of a book about alien invasion is “The War of the Worlds” by H.G. Wells. First published in 1897, this classic science fiction novel remains a seminal work in the genre.

“The War of the Worlds” takes readers on a thrilling journey as Martians invade Earth. The novel follows an unnamed narrator as he witnesses the relentless and destructive onslaught of the Martian invaders in Victorian England. Wells masterfully depicts the chaos, fear, and devastation caused by the technologically advanced alien species.

The book explores themes of imperialism, the vulnerability of humanity, and the clash between advanced extraterrestrial forces and the relatively primitive Earthlings. Wells skillfully employs vivid descriptions and a sense of mounting tension to captivate readers and paint a chilling picture of the catastrophic consequences of an alien invasion.

First Contact

First Contact tropes explore humanity’s initial encounters with intelligent alien civilizations.

These narratives often delve into the challenges of communication, cultural differences, and the profound impact of contact on both human and alien societies.

Alien Invasion

Alien invasion tropes fuel tales of interstellar conflict, pitting humanity against technologically superior extraterrestrial forces.

These narratives explore themes of survival, resistance, and the resilience of the human spirit in the face of imminent destruction.

Futuristic Technologies

Futuristic technologies serve as catalysts for imaginative journeys into speculative realms, pushing the boundaries of scientific advancement and its impact on society.

A notable example of a book about futuristic technologies is “Neuromancer” by William Gibson. Published in 1984, this groundbreaking novel is considered a seminal work of the cyberpunk genre and has had a significant impact on science fiction literature.

“Neuromancer” takes readers on a mind-bending journey through a dystopian future where technology and humanity have become intricately intertwined. Set in a world where mega-corporations rule and virtual reality is pervasive, the story follows the exploits of a washed-up computer hacker named Case, who is given the opportunity to regain his lost abilities by a mysterious employer.

Gibson’s novel introduces readers to a world of “cyberspace,” a virtual reality landscape accessed through neural implants, where hackers navigate a complex web of data, information, and corporate intrigue. The book explores themes of artificial intelligence, the merging of human and machine, and the consequences of unchecked technological advancement.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence tropes contemplate the consequences of creating self-aware machines. These narratives often raise questions about consciousness, morality, and the potential risks and benefits of technological evolution.


Cyberpunk tropes paint gritty visions of high-tech, dystopian futures, where advanced technologies intertwine with societal decay and corporate control.

These narratives explore themes of identity, rebellion, and the ethical implications of a hyperconnected world.

Time Travel

Time travel tropes offer captivating explorations of temporal manipulation, unraveling the fabric of time and presenting narratives that traverse past, present, and future. A renowned version of a book about time travel is “The Time Machine” by H.G. Wells. Published in 1895, this classic science fiction novella introduced the concept of time travel to a wide audience and has since become an enduring masterpiece of the genre.

“The Time Machine” tells the story of an unnamed inventor known simply as The Time Traveller. He constructs a machine that allows him to travel into the future. As he ventures forward in time, he encounters a series of increasingly distant eras, witnessing the evolution of humanity and the Earth itself.

Wells’ novel explores profound themes such as social Darwinism, class divisions, and the ultimate fate of human civilization. Through the lens of time travel, he presents a thought-provoking commentary on the potential consequences of societal choices and the impermanence of human achievements.

Time Paradox

Time paradox tropes delve into the intricate web of cause and effect, where altering the past can have unexpected consequences on the future.

These narratives challenge readers with mind-bending puzzles and explore the fragility of temporal continuity.

Alternate History

Alternate history tropes reimagine pivotal moments in history, presenting divergent timelines with altered outcomes.

These narratives pose intriguing “what if” scenarios and allow readers to reflect on the impact of historical events on the course of humanity.

Post-Apocalyptic Worlds

Post-apocalyptic tropes transport readers to desolate landscapes, exploring the aftermath of cataclysmic events and the resilience of humanity in the face of devastation. One of the most culturally significant books about post-apocalyptic worlds is “1984” by George Orwell. Although it may not fit the traditional definition of a post-apocalyptic novel, it explores a dystopian society that has been ravaged by totalitarian control and serves as a cautionary tale for the potential consequences of oppressive regimes.

Published in 1949, “1984” presents a bleak vision of a future world where individuality is suppressed, surveillance is omnipresent, and the ruling party exerts absolute power over every aspect of citizens’ lives. The novel follows the protagonist, Winston Smith, as he rebels against the oppressive regime and attempts to preserve his own identity and autonomy.

Orwell’s portrayal of a society stripped of freedom and truth resonated deeply with readers, becoming a symbol of resistance against totalitarianism and an exploration of the human spirit under extreme circumstances. The themes of governmental manipulation, thought control, and the suppression of individuality have remained powerful and relevant throughout the decades.


Dystopian tropes present grim visions of future societies plagued by oppressive regimes, environmental collapse, or technological dominance.

These narratives reflect societal anxieties and offer cautionary tales about the potential consequences of unchecked power and societal decay.


Survivalism tropes follow protagonists navigating hostile post-apocalyptic landscapes, battling against the odds for sustenance, safety, and a glimmer of hope.

These narratives showcase human resilience, adaptability, and the triumph of the human spirit in dire circumstances.

How to use sci-fi tropes in your own fiction

Science fiction tropes form the foundation of a vast and captivating literary universe. From alien encounters to futuristic technologies, time travel to post-apocalyptic worlds, these tropes fuel our imagination and invite us to ponder the possibilities and implications of the unknown. They serve as powerful tools for authors to explore complex themes, challenge societal norms, and shed light on the human condition.

Science fiction tropes offer readers a sense of familiarity while allowing for infinite variations and reinterpretations. They provide a framework through which authors can push the boundaries of storytelling, sparking conversations about ethics, technology, identity, and the potential futures that await us. These tropes tap into our collective curiosity, encouraging us to question the world around us and envision alternatives to our current reality.

So, the next time you open a science fiction book and embark on a literary journey that unfolds within its pages, you should now be equipped with all the knowledge and insight one needs to understand both the intentions of the authors, as well as some of the deeper meaning behind the tropes you will likely encounter. 

But why not take things a step further?

What about becoming the author of your own sci-fi novel?

The only limit is your imagination!

Disclosure: Some of the links above may contain affiliate partnerships, meaning, at no additional cost to you, Self-Publishing School may earn a commission if you click through to make a purchase.

Get your free audiobook and ebook copy of:

Published: The proven path from blank page to 10,000 copies sold 

Liked this post? Share it with friends!

Interested in working with us?

Book a free strategy call with our expert team!